CIBAR Conference 2014

2nd – 5th November
Hosted by FMM at
Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris


Copies of presentations are available to members.  Login 
Some may also be available to non-members – for more information contact CIBAR.

Monday, 3rd November

Keynote speech: Journalism, at what price? – Christophe Deloire, Reporters Sans Frontières

Media research in Africa

Some thoughts on media audience research in Africa – Paul Haupt, PAMRO

The current state of audience research in Africa, the challenges of establishing currency research on a continent where extreme diversity exists and the strengthening of local audience research capacities will be discussed. African countries like those in the rest of the world are faced with huge challenges due to the wave of change that is sweeping across media industries worldwide due to technological innovations, the appearance of new media, fragmentation and the convergence of media. This paper will explore the current state of media audience research in Africa and highlight some of the factors that are inhibiting the development of this basic element of media research. Possible cooperation between CIBAR and PAMRO to strengthen local capacities and produce sustainable research will be discussed.

“Parlez vous français?” – How population growth is shaping a new French-speaking world – Franck Buge, TV5Monde

World population is estimated to go up 2.5bn by 2050 and Africa will generate most of the demographic growth. With a large footprint in Africa, can French speaking really overtake English speaking worldwide? What are the key drivers to French speaking in Africa? And more generally, what do media surveys tell us about the dynamics of languages in French-speaking Africa?

The media consumption in french speaking african countries – Stanislas Seveno, TNS

Using data from Africascope in Mali, Senegal, DRC, Ivory Coast, Cameroon and Gabon, we will examine how media behaviour is evolving. What is the evolution of the coverage of radio, TV and the Internet? How are traditional media (radio/TV) consumed during an average day? What is the share of international media versus local? We will set this in the context of changes in access to equipment, channels etc.

The Pace in Space 2014–2022 – Don Ellison, ICF International; Christoph Sahm, Oxford Research International


With other emerging economies, Sub-Saharan Africa is driving market growth for satellite communications worldwide. A new generation of High Throughput Satellites (HTS) will provide an abundance of bandwidth for linear, non-linear, broadband via satellite and new frequencies. The future looks wireless and multi-screen. Tablets and low-cost smartphones will dominate. There will be connectivity anytime, anywhere (and hopefully for everyone). How can public broadcasters benefit from this significant leap forward?

Training media professionals to use qualitative studies: experience with the Radio Rurale de Guinée – Caroline Vuillemin, Fondation Hirondelle

An audience survey was carried out in April 2014 in Guinea as part of a training program led by Fondation Hirondelle. The study, qualitative work with focus groups, was carried on by the radio stations of six cities, part of the network Radio Rurale de Guinée. The objectives of the research were to train radio professionals to a simple methodology for organizing focus groups; to make the radio staff understand that this tool is an essential tool for media management; and to learn how to analyze and use the results to revise the grids and content of programs and respond to the expectations of the listeners and changes of habits. The final aim is to transfer the skill to the Radio Rurales in Guinea and empower them to be able to repeat the exercise every year or every other year. The presentation will explain the methodology used, the main problems and challenges faced, the results and recommendations to take into consideration.

Digital platforms and social media

After the revolution: Libyan and Tunisian media through the people’s eyes – Najla Dowson-Zeidan, BBC Media Action

Research undertaken by BBC Media Action has shown interesting findings around how social media is used and perceived as an information source in Libya and Tunisia, and how this compares to traditional sources of information. The research indicates that social media dominates Libyan and Tunisians’ time online, and is sometimes used to compensate for the shortcomings of the traditional media. In contexts where trust in the media is generally low, Tunisian and Libyan audiences feel the need to shop around for information across various sources, and social media plays a key role in this. People nonetheless retain a healthy scepticism of social media.

Understand What People Do Online – Andreas Piani, Wakoopa

More and more media are consumed online. On more and more devices. Audiences are harder to measure and consumption is more fragmented. Clients are getting more demanding: single source, real time etc. So audience researchers need to retool. This presentation covers new technologies for measuring online media consumption: fully passive, no questions asked.

Expanding Audience Measurement into the Social Media space – Ben Robins, Claire Rooney, BBC

A few years ago, incorporating digital traffic with the broadcast audience was a massive step for media measurement. Today, the BBC World Service is trying to push one step further and incorporate social media engagement into its global audience measurement. This session will review some of the highlights from the BBC Hack Day earlier this year and will provide a very up-to-date look at the social media measurement progress made this year.

Making sense of social media in a confusing social world – Rajesh Srinivasan & Dawn Royal, Gallup

While we all agree that social media is becoming an ever more important part of the media diet, how people define and look at and understand social media in different parts of the world varies greatly. Our research shows that some people who say they do not use social media indeed say they use FaceBook or Twitter. While others note they use social media, but only use YouTube. Confusion also exists among those who say they do not access the internet but indicate social media usage underscoring confusion. These disparities in how people think of social media make it difficult for researchers to clearly examine and understand this platform and its importance in the media consumption diet. This presentation will attempt to cover some of the difficulties in measurement in key developing countries and offer some thoughts on ways to address the measurement and analysis issues.

BBG’s Digital Engagement “Index” – Rebecca Shakespeare, BBG

Online engagement is hard to capture, particularly when it happens on many different sites and properties. The BBG is collecting comparable, countable actions on branded social media accounts and websites sites – currently, Twitter and Facebook with plans to include websites and mobile applications and other social and a/v channels. This session will demonstrate the tool BBG is using to count engagement actions and plans for future use and development. .

Research in challenging environments

Capturing audience information needs in crisis and responding to them: the role of media – experiences from Bangladesh, Syria and Gaza – Pam Vallance, BBC Media Action

Drawing on our experience in preparing for lifeline response and undertaking responses, this presentation reflects on the role of different methodologies used to capture information and communication needs and how programming responds to them aDownloadt the time of crisis. The presentation explores BBC Media Action’s work to establish standard information needs assessment questions and to undertake research on understanding the role media can have in crisis as well as understanding if the programmes produced are timely, relevant and providing valuable information.

Digital and offline: research on information sharing in Asia’s most repressive environments – Betsy Henderson, RFA

While most of the world grapples with information overload and privacy issues online, those in North Korea, Tibet and Xinjiang have few sources for information and no expectation of privacy. Still, some people in those most repressive environments are finding information lifelines in portable digital devices. This presentation shares findings from qualitative research and refugee/defector surveys and considers the broader implications for information sharing.

Reaching Audiences in Crisis: Evaluation of the Boda Boda Talk Talk Project in South Sudan Protection of Civilian Camps – Natalie Forcier, Forcier Consulting

As part of the USAID-funded Internews Humanitarian Information System Project, Forcier Consulting evaluated the effectiveness of the Boda Boda Talk Talk Project in the Tongpiny UN Mission in South Sudan Protection of Civilians Camp through collecting data in three waves between January 2014 and August 2014. The presentation will focus on the findings of the evaluation, as well as the challenges of sampling within camp settings and audience measurement of impermanent broadcasting methods used in humanitarian settings.

Tuesday, 4th November

International broadcasting, public diplomacy and ‘soft power’

Soft power and the national interest: a government perspective – Ben O’Loughlin, Chief Academic Advisor to the House Of Lords Committee on Public Diplomacy

This paper considers soft power from the perspective of policymakers for whom soft power is part of a broader set of foreign policy strategies and practices. The state is navigating the troublesome status of ‘hard’ power and the emergence of digital connectivity and ‘the people’ as an actor in international affairs. How policymakers conceive ‘influence’ and who are they are trying to attract and reach has never been more pressing, not least if you work for an international broadcaster. What tensions emerge between national strategy and the organizational goals of public and cultural diplomacy institutions and others ‘enlisted’ by the state? Analysis presented is based on first hand engagement with UK policymakers since 2013.

Soft power and its audiences – Marie Gillespie, Open University

In this presentation we shift the focus of debate from governments and leaders ‒ those who seek to wield and exploit soft power via international broadcasting ‒ to the subjects of power ‒ those who are allegedly persuaded, attracted and seduced by it. We examine the tensions that exist between the theory and practice of public diplomacy as a tool of soft power. We highlight the role of audience research in exploding some myths about soft power but also the uses of audience research to legitimate claims about the soft power effects of international broadcasting on overseas publics. We explore the problems that international broadcasters face in negotiating the twin demands of serving the national interest while at the same time providing an independent, reliable news service. The analysis is based on a 10-year study of BBC World Service by researchers at The Open University.

The “French Touch”: France Médias Monde and Cultural Diplomacy – Abigail Legge, Open University/FMM

This presentation gives an overview of how the mission of France Médias Monde is understood by the French state as a channel of cultural diplomacy. It will also examine how its broadcasters interpret that role. I will argue that France’s approach to diplomatic relations has historically been deeply cultural, that this legacy remains, and that it is reproduced in how it understands the role of French overseas broadcasting. Based on ongoing research in the organisation and analysis of policy documents, my study highlights a series of contradictions: in particular, reliance on government funding to project a French perspective to the world, contrasted with the requirement to remain impartial. The presentation highlights the gap between the rhetoric of the state, and the day-to-day realities of broadcasting.

International broadcasting and public diplomacy: Perspectives from France and Germany – Eva Polonska-Kimunguyi, Monash University, Australia

This paper examines on-line news representations of violent extremism in Nigeria by two European international broadcasters, France 24 and Deutsche Welle. It analyses differences between rhetoric of the state and the realities of practices in international broadcasting. The paper situates news media representations in the broader context of historical relations between the broadcasters and their audiences in Africa. The analysis demonstrates that in both cases media reporting is consistent with the official foreign policies of the French and German governments towards Nigeria.

Research innovations (Part 1)

The challenges of conducting research in a complex, mature market – Kevin Cowan, BBC; Aya Fujito, NHK

CIBAR often concentrates on the research challenges of working in developing markets, but what are the challenges of working in some of the world’s most advanced markets? In terms of methodology can the developed world learn from the developing world or vice versa? NHK has been conducting research in the USA for the past 3 years and this year is working with the BBC on their national survey. Find out about the complexities of working in the US and decide for yourself if there are opportunities to apply the learnings to studies in other parts of the world.

Welcome to the sweetie shop… engaging the public with research: creative collaborations in Sheffield – Hugh Hope-Stone, Hope-Stone Research

Communicating research to the non-data or analysis-literate can be difficult for both the researcher and the audience but tax-funded UK Universities increasingly need to be seen to be spending public money on valued and relevant research. One way to prove and increase its worth is through public engagement.
The University of Sheffield has been working with local cultural, community and arts groups to come up with something more compelling than just a talking head. This presentation will take you through some of these creative approaches to delivering research insights and demonstrate the benefit of such approaches to both the researcher and the public. From a mobile sweetshop exchanging ideas for candy to hip hop street art and its links to the bible, to storytelling skills for archaeologists and light artists and neuro-scientists creating an immersive experience.

More new angles on program assessment – Bettina Binder, Anna Hofmann, Kerstin Weisbach, DW

At last year’s CIBAR conference, results of an in-depth content analysis of the main evening news shows of five international broadcasters were presented. The study focused on content, presentation and the journalistic quality of the news reports. In order to broaden the scope and fill an existing gap in the description of the structure and content of international TV channels, a follow-up study was designed. The 24/7 programs of DW, France24, BBC World News, CNN International, Al Jazeera English, and Russia Today over the course of one natural week in June 2013 were recorded and analysed . With a focus on structural features such as formats, use of UGC, or amount and distribution of reruns, the current study reveals structural differences between the programs as well as general characteristics of international TV.

Evaluating international broadcasting: the Cultural Value Model – Marie Gillespie, Open University; Colin Wilding

At the last CIBAR conference there was a discussion about the changing cultural value of the international broadcasters; this served as input into an Open University project which focused on BBC World Service and the British Council and examined how their cultural value can be assessed and measured. As part of this project we have developed an innovative, theoretically grounded and empirically informed Cultural Value Model (CVM). This is an innovative device for conceptualising, analysing and assessing value in a multidimensional, composite, visual way. The CVM is designed for planning, monitoring and evaluating projects and organisations over time, alongside existing performance indicators and impact measures.

New Technologies in the Toolbox: Faster?, Cheaper? … Better? – Bill Bell, BBG

The rapid increase in the usage of mobile phones and Internet continues to open up news prospects for research on consumer behaviour without resorting to costly and labor-intensive face-to-face surveys. But in what contexts do these technologies offer genuine insight without compromising data quality? In this presentation we will review BBG’s experiences to date and discuss plans for future implementation of mobile and web-based research.

A unique approach: Using the mobile phone to collect audience data in emerging markets – Cathy Vonderhaar, GeoPoll

Over the past several months GeoPoll has developed a Media Measurement Service, which uses the power of the feature phone to offer daily TV ratings from several African markets, for the first time giving advertisers and broadcasters a real-time, granular look at the viewing habits of more than 300 million people. This presentation will explore the challenges and benefits of creating a new method to measure media consumption in emerging markets, and will examine how to best scale one methodology across the African continent. Finally, GeoPoll will present a case study of World Cup viewership collected through daily mobile phone panels.

CIBAR Core Questionnaire: towards Version 6

CIBAR Core Questionnaire – Examining Essential Elements, Consumer Confusion and Solutions – Sonja Gloeckle, BBG; Dawn Royal, Gallup

After application of strict use of the CIBAR core questionnaire in more than two dozen countries over about 20 months, Gallup and BBG review the successes and challenges in the questionnaire both in design and application, and provide recommendations on needed changes to make the core truly utilizable across the globe.

Since the Internet is not the Internet, let’s ask about something else – Betsy Henderson, RFA

Analysis of past survey results suggests that respondents don’t always consider Internet-based activities – especially app-based behaviours – to be “the Internet.” The presentation looks at new media sections in the CIBAR core questionnaire and considers ways to get better measures for new media use though more respondent-friendly questions.

“Smarties”: DW’s answer to new challenges in media research – and tighter budgets – Inga Hoehne, Anne Schmidt, DW

With Smart Media Studies (Smarties) DW has developed an alternative study program to measure media use and news consumption. Because of tighter budgets and the need to report trend data promptly and periodically, the challenge is to measure reach figures for TV channels as well as for international programmes on national stations. At the same time the questionnaire has to be short, but there’s always space for smart questions.
Based on knowledge of the typical structure of international broadcasters’ audiences, DW decided to use urban quota samples which are representative for higher social classes; they plan to conduct 2-3 short and well structured surveys within one country within a year. The surveys will mostly be face-to-face using tablets, which will allow to include the station logos and speed up the after-fieldwork-process. Development of the surveys is backed by cognitive testing and split-file-experiments.

Wednesday, 5th November

Explaining differences in results from surveys which look similar

The user-experience: contradictions in audience data – Roy Head, Development Media International

DMI has constructed the first model to predict the impact of mass media campaigns on child mortality. It is also conducting the first randomised controlled trial (in Burkina Faso) to test those predictions. Radio and TV penetration data is crucial to the model, yet both DHS data and other sources have sometimes proved unreliable. We present the problem.

BBG and DHS Surveys: Why do the Results Differ? – Bill Bell, BBG

Outside users of BBG data have observed that these surveys’ estimates of media access and usage often differ substantially from those obtained from other sources, notably the respected DHS series. These discrepancies raise questions about the overall integrity of the data and leave users without clear guidance as to which data is most reliable. In this presentation we present a number of hypotheses that might explain the differences between the surveys and suggest means for minimizing such differences in the future.

Approaches to Cluster Level Sampling – Don Ellison, ICF International

DHS surveys use listing or mapping of enumeration areas, rather than random walks, as a basis for household selection. Should international broadcasters adopt the same approach? The presentation will look at the implications for costs and logistics.

When is a debate show not a debate show? Use of other survey data – Pam Vallance, BBC Media Action


What are the considerations in comparing and what do you do when you find differing survey results from the same media market? BBC Media Action will share some challenges and insights into comparison of media data and impact data in one country and what challenges exist in terms of being able to compare.

Research commissioned by international media vs. national syndicated surveys: which compromise without compromising the relevancy? – Claire Marous-Guivarc’h, Hélène Rezé, FMM

In a context where more and more developing countries are implementing national reference media research, how to position international media research on these markets? Do they both tell the same story? Are they complementing or competing? A case study: the FMM’s experience in Maghreb.

Research innovations (Part 2)

How markets grow up digitally and why the future lies where we don’t expect it – Thomas Naude-Filonnière, TNS

We will use key finding from TNS Connected Life 2014, a global research based on 55,000 interviews across 50 markets around the world, to display how markets are taking different paths on their way to mobile-centricity and why western countries are getting there last. This “mobile divide” impacts how markets use social and the pace at which they adopt instant messaging, which is stealing shares of affinity across the globe. We will also show that the markets’ appetite for brand content and their willingness to engage with brands is linked to its level of development and that major opportunities can be seized in emerging countries.

Which platforms & formats work for our audiences? Media research across eight African countries – Adrienne Testa, BBC Media Action

BBC Media Action produces and broadcasts evidence-informed programmes addressing international development issues across eight countries in Africa. We operate in diverse media markets ranging those where a large proportion of the population is without access to media to well developed, crowded markets. Drawing on recent research on radio and TV programmes and media consumption habits, we will explore the the ways that increased internet access and mobile phone ownership open new platforms to access existing programmes; and what research can tell us about audience preferences for different programme formats.

Evaluating media impact: the role of quasi-experimental methods – Pablo Diego Rosell, Gallup

Evaluating impact is one of the toughest challenges for international media researchers. Cross-sectional data, the most common type, is beset by selection bias which renders it useless for causal inference. Experimental evidence, the golden standard for impact evaluations, is often difficult and costly to obtain, and may not generalize to real-life situations. This presentation will target the middle ground: quasi-experimental methods. We will review the main standard quasi-experimental approaches and put them to the test on several recent IARP surveys. With these tests we aim to shed light on the usefulness of quasi-experiments for the evaluation of media impact, and provide recommendations on research designs moving forward.

Dancing ’til we drop: ageing but not as we know it – Kevin Cowan, BBC

How old are you? This may seem like a straightforward question to answer, but in most cases we do not see ourselves as our biological age. We think of age in terms of things like how old we feel, how old we feel we look, our mental age and so on. This has a number of implications for how organisations view consumers. Building on work originally conducted in the UK the BBC commissioned a 15-country study of over 7,500 respondents to show that the nature of the differences and relationship between real/biological age and perceived age is a universal, human condition. This presentation demonstrates how the universal and country-specific age constructs can be used to shape the BBC’s and other organisations’ strategy/tactics.